Difference between revisions of "Hacking"
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== Create your own
== Create your own ==
# Get prepared with the appropriate files:
# Get prepared with the appropriate files:
Revision as of 09:16, 30 November 2006
That is what this site is intended for:
- 1 Hardware Hacking
- 2 Firmware Hacking
- 3 Software for the TeraStation
- 4 Lundman page
- 5 Minimalistic changes to firmware with SSH only (also includes step by step process)
- 6 Create your own Terastation toolchain
- Adding a serial console.
- become root: firmware version 1.04
- moving disks: change the firmware by moving the disks to a PC.
- Real NAS: Converting the Terastation into a NAS like server with an additional os hard disk and a fully featured operating system.
- Extra Disks: Adding Extra disks to make a 1TB Terastation into a 2TB Terastation. With the potential to create a 6TB Terastation (Using eight 750Gb Drives).
- Replacing all drives in 06TB : Upgrading all 4 drives.
You can create your own firmware, it's explained here.
Already hacked firmware
Dave Walker created a hacked firmware that you can just download and use (Thank you Dave!):
http://homepage.ntlworld.com/itimpi/buffalo.htm mirror: http://supportonsite.dk/files.php minimalistic (ssh only): http://blog.kevinashley.com/articles/2006/04/14/minimalistic-terastation-1tb-hacking-to-allow-proper-rsync-and-ssh
Success count (if you are successful, please add to this list):
- Bluefedora, 1.12, 2005-11-18
- added dropbear as outlined below
- Jones, 1.12, 2005-10-11
- Hacking with SSH and SAMBA 3.0.14a (Debian package).
- Now I am shooting on the problem of led (STATUS/FULL) not working properly.
- yukiman, 1.12, 2005-12-03
- Used Dave's firmware with 1.12 installed and update worked fine, logged in now via telnet.
- Got dropbear working as well.
- mh123083, 1.12, 2006-01-13
- Used Dave's firmware with dropbear and allnfs - works perfectly.
- alun, 1.12, 2006-01-19
- Used Dave's firmware. Updated from (factory) 1.08. Have not installed anything else yet. Worried about possible nfs problems...
- SKarp 18:38, 2 Feb 2006 (CET)
- Updated from stock 1.03 to Dave's firmware 1.12 and added allnfs. Working fine in early testing.
- Raphaël 22:55, 24 Mar 2006 (JST)
- Updated from 2.03 to Dave's 2.03, works fine.
- 2.05a didn't work and left my box flat, but an upgrade to 2.03 afterwards restored the situation.
- poxy bowsy 9 April 2006
- Updated from 1.12 to Dave's 2.05a, but install failed, unit was EM'ed
- reinitialized and tried to revert to 1.12a but unit was still EM'ed
- reinitialized and tried to revert to stock 1.12 but unit was still EM'ed
- reinitialized and installed 2.05a again and everything seems fine (whew)
- Ringgh0st, 1.12 2006-04-10
- upgraded to Dave's hacked Firmware v1.12 on a v1.12 Terastation
- added Midnight Commander (starts with a little codepage fault, but notthing really important)
- didnt get the lundftpd working yet, the service doesnt start (no errorlog), if i try to start it manually with the -v string a "segmentation fault" pops up
- 27 April 2006: 1st station updated to Dave's v2.08a using Japanese firmware updater
- 29 April 2006: 2nd station updated to Dave's v2.08a using Japanese firmware updater (had to use recovery with powerbutton on diag.)
- 1 Juli 2006: 3rd station pro updates to Dave's v1.03 using Japanese firmware updater
- Risse-it 02.05.2006
- Updated TS0.6GB from 1.12 to minimalistic (ssh only)
- didn't reboot after installing MC and disc-tuning via hdparm (don't know which was the problem - i did both)
- restored by mounting the first IDE-drive to my Gentoo-x86 (xfs_repair -L) and copied the imagefiles from minimalistic
- hdparm now runs with -d1 -c1 -m16 -a64 -A1 -u1 -k1 -S241 (any suggestions?)
- patched some .cgi and .pl-files for more statistics (anyone who's running rrdtool or any other statistics???)
- USB-printer will only print from Windows (VMware) and not via smb from Gentoo or Ubuntu (Epson Stylus Color C82)
- patched mail-notifier (to do smtp-auth)
- Entropy 2006-May-20
- Updated Terastation Pro firmware 1.01 with dropbear and nfs user space daemons
- --Luminaire 11:14, 31 May 2006 (CEST)
- Used successfully on TS HD-H1.0TGL/R5 (1.12 firmware). Works a treat. Going to try NFS/NIS.
Used successfully on TS-1.0TGL/R5 Works but damn is this thing slow. Truly bound by pathetic CPU. Doesn't even begin to test the Gigabit network
- -- Kimbotha 14:57, 25 October 2006 (CEST)
- 24 October 2006: Updated new 1TB Terastation from v1.12 to Dave's v2.10a - Failed first time, reapplied v2.10a and it nows works fine.
- Installed dropbear following instructions successfully
- Tried to install kernel mode nfs as per instructions but failed to load modules
- installed user mode nfs as per Entropy's instructions successfully
- currently looking to build a cross toolchain so I can build unfs3 as I need >2GB file support
- -- Kimbotha 16:37, 25 October 2006 (CEST)
- While collecting the components to try and start build a cross compile toolchain I found an set of nfs kernel modules and the nfs kernel daemon here (http://downloads.linkstationwiki.net/terastation/kernel_modules/). These seem to load fine on my TS (with a change to the /etc/init.d/nfs-kernel-server to allow rpc.mountd to start). Will try and run some tests on >2GB files when I have some on there to work with.
Software for the TeraStation
I will add small software packages as .tgz here for you to install onto the TeraStation.
As a rule, you should be able to use most Debian PowerPC packages built for woody. Use ftp to access ftp.de.debian.org (or another mirror), go to pub/debian/pool/main/ and to the directory named with the first letter of what you are looking for, there you should find a directory for the package; download a suitable version (should have "woody" and "powerpc" in the name), unpack it on a Debian box using "dpkg-deb -x package.deb name-of-temporary-dir", remove any clutter (man pages) from your temporary directory, create a tar file and copy it over to the TeraStation.
(NB I wanted to upload a .tgz but the Wiki didn't let me, saying that .tgz was not an accepted image format. --Fred 12:05, 12 Dec 2005 (CET))
A small ssh server. home page
The install package (108k) already contains the proper links to have it start on boot, and it contains two keys for the server. Maybe you want to generate your own set of keys.
Just extract the .tgz as root into the root of your TeraStation:
dmin@HD-HTGL113:~$ sudo -s Password: root@HD-HTGL113:~# cd / root@HD-HTGL113:/# tar -xzf /mnt/array1/share/dropbear.tgz
generate your own set of keys:
root@HD-HTGL113:/# rm /etc/dropbear/dropbear_rsa_host_key root@HD-HTGL113:/# rm /etc/dropbear/dropbear_dss_host_key root@HD-HTGL113:/# dropbearkey -t rsa -f /etc/dropbear/dropbear_rsa_host_key Will output 1024 bit rsa secret key to '/etc/dropbear/dropbear_rsa_host_key' Generating key, this may take a while... Public key portion is: ... root@HD-HTGL113:/# dropbearkey -t dss -f /etc/dropbear/dropbear_dss_host_key Will output 1024 bit dss secret key to '/etc/dropbear/dropbear_dss_host_key' Generating key, this may take a while... Public key portion is: ...
Can i setup publick key authentication on dropbear. If so can someone give me an example. I was able to upgrade the firmware succesffully on the Terastation Pro. I am planning to do a Public Key Authentication on my mac and use rsync for backup using ssh protocol. Any ideas? Thanks a gazillion, Naven
Yes you can: Create a key on your Linux/Unix workstation with: ssh-keygen -t rsa The public and private key will be automatically saved to the directory .ssh in your homedir.
Next: copy the text from id_rsa.pub and connect to your Terastation as root.
On your Terastation: - mkdir /root/.ssh - vi /root/.ssh/authorized_keys - paste the text you copied in the step before - save the file
Now you can connect to your Terastation by using public key authentication
For a description on how to install, see Midnight Commander.
Aaron explains how he converted his TeraStation to an ETH-disk and gained Encryption, NTFS Support, and Windows Share Management by using an additional Windows system.
It is possible to modify the TeraStation's Samba install to properly map the System, Archive, Hidden, and Read-Only attributes for files (not directories). This modification will require you have Telnet access to your TeraStation as per the modifications previously mentioned.
The general approach is this. The /etc/samba/smb.conf file contains Samba's configuration settings. To map the attributes, we need to add the following to the global section or to the individual shares:
map hidden = yes map archive = yes map system = yes create mode = 771 directory mode = 770
We also need to remove the "force create mode" and "force directory mode" entries. Unfortunately, just modifying the file is not enough because every boot, a script calls /sbin/teractrl -k which overwrites the configuration file. I noticed that most of the scripts also called /usr/local/bin/mkrsconf.pl afterwards to setup the rsync config for backup purposes, so I piggy back on that script to rewrite the Samba configuration.
Make a backup of your existing mkrsconf.pl file, and then replace the original with the new file content I have below. If you're working in Windows, you can copy the file to one of the shares under /mnt/array1, just be sure to use a UNIX compatible text editor if you don't want your newlines to get messed up. Then you can copy from there to the /usr/local/bin folder via Telnet to overwrite the original file.
The other thing you'll need to do when you're done is update all of the attributes on your existing shares since previously everything was probably created with 777 permisions, which will result in all of your files now showing up as hidden, system files. You can change the permissions from Telnet using chmod, or you can do it from a Windows Command Prompt using the attrib command.
Also of note, TeraStation generated files are created by "root", so with group permissions adjusted now you may not be able to modify attributes of files like backup logs. It's probably not necessary though as you can still read/write the content, but if you need to, you can either take care of those from Telnet by doing a chown to change the owner, or you can modify the script to also add:
force group = root force user = root
I haven't tested the latter scenario, but I understand it will force all content on disk to be owned by root and have all share access performed as root. This isn't quite as bad as it sounds. Check out this link for more information: http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/samba/chapter/book/ch05_03.html
Why these extremely useful features weren't on by default I don't know. Here's a link to the modified file. Be sure to rename it to mkrsconf.pl on your side!
One word of caution, for most configurations I think I'm picking up all of the required entries from the system configuration files. But, it's entirely possible you may have a configuration parameter that isn't currently read by the script. If so, please note the discrepency, let me know so I can update it, and make sure you update your copy to pick up the extra parameter if you need to use it in the mean time.
Once you've replaced the file, just type "reboot" from the Telnet prompt and when your TeraStation comes back up, you should have the ability to change file attributes. This will allow you to use real backup programs that make use of the Archive attribute for incremental backups.
--Aaron 23:58, 10 Mar 2006 (CET)
I have noticed the chown and chmod on the TS were not compiled with large file support, so if you may get something like the following if you try and change the permissions on a large file:
# chown kimbotha:hdusers ./hdc-20060305.img.bz2 chown: ./hdc-20060305.img.bz2: Value too large for defined data type
# chmod g+w ./hdc-20060305.img.bz2 chmod: ./hdc-20060305.img.bz2: Value too large for defined data type
Luckily, perl is compiled with large file support so some equivalent commands would be:
# perl -e 'chown 1002, 100, "hdc-20060305.img.bz2";'
# perl -e 'chmod 0775, "hdc-20060305.img.bz2";'
-- Kimbotha 11:21, 26 October 2006 (CEST)
OK, . This contains the kernel modules, the utilities and the startup files for kernel NFS.
Then, because the symlink that is /var gets overwritten:
cp -a /var/lib /mnt/ram/var/lib mv /var /var.old ln -s /mnt/ram/var /var
Edit /etc/exports to match your setup, then reboot or run the init files by hand:
depmod -a /etc/init.d/portmap start /etc/init.d/nfs-common start /etc/init.d/nfs-kernel-server start
Problems with NFS may arise, please see the discussion page for details.
Having just spent several days trying to get NFS working I can give a few tips. If you can write to the NFS share, but have problems reading from it (transfers stall or terastation randomly reboots) try disabling jumbo packets. If the jumbo packet size on all your machines doesn't match than UDP transfers such as NFS wreak havoc with the terastation. I now have the 2.03 firmware and user mode NFS (from debian PPC) working smoothly. An alternative solution would be to use TCP rather than UDP for NFS, but not all NFS implementations support this.
Missing rpcinfo? After installing nfsd_terastation.tgz "tar -C / -xzf nfsd_terastation.tgz" the initialization script "/etc/init.d/nfsd-kernel-server" references "rpcinfo" and fails to start rpc.mountd because rpcinfo is missing and the parameters for rpc.mountd are wrong.
Edit the nfsd-kernel-server file and set the option on line 22 to:
RPCMOUNTDOPTS="--no-nfs-version" or RPCMOUNTDOPTS="--nfs-version"
Note line 39-40. It uses RPCMOUNTDOPTS to build an options line for rpc.mountd. Simply put on line 22 RPCMOUNTDOPTS="--nfs-version" and when you start the server, it will run "rpc.mountd --nfs-version 3".
If you get a "Permission Denied" when trying to mount an export, check to see that the reverse DNS entry resolves correctly for the server trying to mount. On the terastation, update your /etc/hosts file (optional) and create a script to reset this file every time the server boots. /etc/rc.d/init.d/networking overwrites this file.
I put in "--nfs-version 3" as I only want v3 support. I am still testing this. -- Kimbotha 10:45, 26 October 2006 (CEST)
--status: Please note that I have personally had a HUGE problem with the NFS CLIENTS when using this server. There seems to be a large degree of "retransmissions" and I/O problems as a result of communicating with the nfs server. (Run "nfsstat" on the client). If there has been any updates to the server, I'd wish they would be published! Perhaps I'll just fall back to using "smbmount" Also, this server appears to have only UDP support. NFS Clients complain with "nfs over UDP causes data corruption" (ick). -- 12:00, November 24 2006 (SGT)
Alternative Media Server and FTPD. home page
--Scott 19:09, 18 Aug 2005 (CEST)
Minimalistic changes to firmware with SSH only (also includes step by step process)
Minimalistic ready-to use firmware update with step-by-step guide. All credits to the authors of this wiki.
 Blog post with image.
Create your own Terastation toolchain
- Get prepared with the appropriate files:
KERNELCONFIG=`pwd`/powerpc-603e.config TARGET=powerpc-603e-linux-gnu TARGET_CFLAGS="-O -mcpu=603e" GCC_EXTRA_CONFIG="--with-cpu=603e --enable-cxx-flags=-mcpu=603e"
- Create a build shell script in the crosstools directory:
#!/bin/sh set -ex TARBALLS_DIR=/tmp/downloads RESULT_TOP=/opt/crosstool export TARBALLS_DIR RESULT_TOP #GCC_LANGUAGES="c,c++,java" GCC_LANGUAGES="c,c++" export GCC_LANGUAGES # Really, you should do the mkdir before running this, # and chown /opt/crosstool to yourself so you don't need to run as root. # mkdir -p $RESULT_TOP # Build the toolchain. Takes a couple hours and a couple gigabytes. eval `cat powerpc-603e.dat gcc-3.3.6-glibc-2.3.2.dat` sh all.sh --notest echo Done.
A couple of things to note here. The Terastation stock gcc/glibc is 3.3.1/2.3.2. The gcc crossbuild of 3.3.1 requires a couple of extra patches to compile and 3.3.6 compiles cleanly. It's unlikely that something would specifically require 3.3.1 so I used 3.3.6.
Also, note that the java language is not built. It does not compile without error in the crossbuild. It's probably trivial to get it to compile, I just quit trying because I don't currently have a use for it. If you get it to compile, please post the patch here.
- Start the Build
First create the /opt/crosstools directory and make sure your compiling user (hopefully not root) has access to write files there, then:
(Go have a beer, or six. This will take awhile. On my 1.4 GHz machine, it takes roughly 4 hours (hey, just be happy you're not building it on your wimpy TS). It will use about 2 GB of disk space as well.)
Ack!! can someone fix the formatting here?
--Entropy 10:08, 30 November 2006 (CET)