IPSec-VPN on Stock Kernel
From NAS-Central Buffalo - The Linkstation Wiki
Attention: What ever you do, you do it on your own risk
You have to have firmware 1.34 already installed and opened for telnet access. If not, you can find a guide here: Open Stock Firmware LS-XHL
For Firmwares before 1.34 this also may work, but it's unknown if the IPSEC-XL2TP Packages are also in there.
What's the aim ?
The aim is to realize a VPN-Server that uses L2TP-IPSec as tunneling technology.
Why this, and not PPTP ? The issue with PPTP is, that it needs MPPE support within the kernel, which is simply not there.
Therefore we are going to use IPSec & L2TP, as they are more secury in most scenarios in any way.
What is needed ?
The good news are: everything is already on the box, you don't have to install any external software-package at all.
The bad news: The packages are configured to be used for a service called PocketU (only in Japan). As a matter of fact all boxes outside of Japan are not using those things at all.
As a general guidline for an IPSec-L2TP Server we need: IPSec - Package (here OpenSwan with pluto), an IPSec-Configuration and a tunnel-configuration L2TP - Package (here xl2tp), and xl2tp-Configuration and ppp.xl2tp options
How does it work
The VPN works as follows:
1) An IPSec tunnel will be opened (using a preshared-key or certificates)
2) Within the tunnel L2TP is used to authenticate a user and do IP-adressing with PPP in there
Needed files to be touched / modified:
As all these files are already there, make sure, you are backing them up.
Configuring IPSec: Modify /etc/ipsec.conf to enable NAT-Traversal (NAT-T) and to define private networks:
# basic configuration config setup # Debug-logging controls: "none" for (almost) none, "all" for lots. # klipsdebug=none # plutodebug=all protostack=netkey nat_traversal=yes virtual_private=%v4:10.0.0.0/8,%v4:172.16.0.0/12,%v4:192.168.0.0/16,%v4:!YOUR.PRIVATE:NETWORK:ADD/24 oe=off # Enable this if you see "failed to find any available worker" nhelpers=0 forwardcontrol=no #You may put your configuration (.conf) file in the "/etc/ipsec.d/" and uncomment this. include /etc/ipsec.d/l2tp.conf
Based on this we are adding in /etc/ipsec.d/ a file called l2tp.conf to configure our connection:
conn L2TP-PSK #type=tunnel left=YOUR.LS.IP.ADDR #Put the address of your linkstation here #leftnexthop= #Put your (NAT)gateway address here leftprotoport=udp/l2tp right=%any rightsubnet=vhost:%no,%priv rightprotoport=udp/l2tp auto=add authby=secret ike=3des-sha1-modp2048,3des-sha1-modp1024 pfs=no rekey=no keyingtries=3
Now let's define secrets (preshared-key in this case) for the tunnel in /etc/ipsec.d/l2tp.secrets
: PSK "PRESHARED-KEY" # you can add addresses before the ":" to define for which addresses this key is used
This should be sufficient for IPSec itself. You could try to start this with /etc/init.d/ipsec start
For L2TP we need to modify the file /etc/xl2tpd/xl2tpd.conf
[global] listen-addr = YOUR.LS:IP.ADDR #Put your Linkstation-IP Address here ; ; debug tunnel = yes ; debug packet = yes [lns default] ip range = 192.168.XX.YYY-192.168.XX.ZZZ # Address-range for clients local ip = YOUR.LS:IP.ADDR #Put your Linkstation-IP Address here require chap = yes refuse pap = yes require authentication = yes name = YOUR-VPN-SERVER NAME pppoptfile = /etc/ppp/options.xl2tpd length bit = yes ppp debug = yes