Difference between revisions of "Open Stock Firmware"

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m (<font color=blue>Revision Info:</font>)
m (Addon Files.)
Line 221: Line 221:
 
   tar -C / -xzvf addons.tar
 
   tar -C / -xzvf addons.tar
 
Set the suid bit on su:
 
Set the suid bit on su:
   chmod 4755 /usr/bin/su
+
   chmod 4755 /bin/su
 
Note: If you have a LS Live or running firmware 1.10 or above you will need to download libproc, this is not included with the above.
 
Note: If you have a LS Live or running firmware 1.10 or above you will need to download libproc, this is not included with the above.
 
http://downloads.linkstationwiki.net/Users/kaiten/libproc-3.2.6_arm9.tgz
 
http://downloads.linkstationwiki.net/Users/kaiten/libproc-3.2.6_arm9.tgz

Revision as of 19:15, 31 August 2007

I just bought another LS(Live) & wanted to have it open (SSH), as close to a stock firmware box as I could for testing. There are a few fixes that should be added too.

I'll be referencing a few links to a few wiki/web articles as long as some user posts. Hopefully this will cover most of what is needed. As always I'm human & can make some mistakes. If you see anything that seems a bit odd, change it.

Contents

WARNING.. Do this at your own risk.

Have a plan

  • Research is always the best way to go.
  • Get all the doumentation you need available.
  • Understand what your going to do. No point in getting halfway through a job, only to get stuck/lost.
  • Make sure you have the software/tools available to carry out the job.
  • Probably the most important part... BACKUP, you don't want to lose your important data/system files.
  • If unsure read again, check the wiki, search the forum.... then post.

Getting Console (Telnet) Access with acp_commander


Enter the following (Replacing <IP ADDRESS> with the IP Address of your Linkstation)

 java -jar acp_commander.jar -t <IP ADDRESS> -o

You should see something along the lines of:

 Using random connID VALUE = FB6A7FCF57E6
 Using target: 192.168.1.11/192.168.1.11 (your IP address)
 ** NO message **
 ** NO message **
 Password changed.

This may not happen straight away. However I have only ever had to do it a maximum of twice.

Your Linkstation should now have the telnet daemon enabled. User "root" will have a null (Blank) root password, until you change it. The telnet daemon will be available until you reboot your Linkstation.

  • Enable your firewall. (If applicable)

Now you can login to your Linkstation with telnet.

Connect with Telnet

Enter the following (Replacing <IP ADDRESS> with the IP Address of your Linkstation)

 telnet <IP ADDRESS>

and login with "root" No password should be asked.

Securing

  • First thing you want to do is set the root password & secure your Linkstation from unwanted users.

Enter the following.

 passwd

You will be promted with the following.

 Changing password for root
 Enter the new password (minimum of 5, maximum of 20 characters)
 Please use a combination of upper and lower case letters and numbers.
 Enter new password:

Enter your new password, press enter. You will be then promted with:

 Re-enter new password:

Re-enter your new password. Press enter. If your passwords match (C'mon it aint hard), you will get the following notifiction:

 Password changed.

Create a startup script & config for sshd.

  • If you want to leave telnet as the preferred way of connecting then you don't have to do this. Skip to section: Adding Telnet/SSHD to your start up script (rcS)
  • The stock firmware does have the sshd binaries included. The following section will allow you to create a startup script for this.
  • Read the Vi text editor tutorial, http://linkstationwiki.net/index.php/Vi_text_editor_tutorial
  • We will use vi to create & edit the '/etc/init.d/sshd.sh' startup script. (This script does not exist in stock, no backup needed)

Type in the following:

 vi /etc/init.d/sshd.sh

You will then be taken into the text editor. Press i, to get into Insert mode. Enter the following code:

Pre 1.11-1a Frimware:

 #! /bin/sh
 # Start/stop the SSH daemon.
 #
 #
 
 test -f /usr/local/sbin/sshd || exit 0
 
 case "$1" in
 start)  echo -n "Start services: sshd"
         /usr/local/sbin/sshd -f /etc/sshd_config 2> /dev/null &
         ;;
 stop)   echo -n "Stop services: sshd"
         killall sshd
         ;;
 restart)
         $0 stop
         $0 start
         ;;
 *)      echo "Usage: $0 start|stop|restart"
         exit 1
         ;;
 esac
 exit 0

1.11-1a Firmware:

 #! /bin/sh
 # Start/stop the SSH daemon
 #
 #
 
 test -f /usr/local/sbin/sshd || exit 0
 
 # this is used by daemonwatch
 ACTIVE_FILE=/var/run/active_sshd
 
 case "$1" in
 start)  echo -n "Start services: sshd"
         /usr/local/sbin/sshd -f /etc/sshd_config 2> /dev/null &
         touch $ACTIVE_FILE
         ;;
 stop)   echo -n "Stop services: sshd"
         killall sshd
         rm -f $ACTIVE_FILE
         ;;
 restart)
         $0 stop
         $0 start
         ;;
 *)      echo "Usage: $0 start|stop|restart"
         exit 1
         ;;
 esac
 exit 0  
 

Press Esc to exit Insert mode. Then enter :wq (colon wq) to exit vi.

We need to make sure that this file is executable we will do this with chmod http://www.penguin-soft.com/penguin/man/1/chmod.html

Enter the following:

 chmod 0755 /etc/init.d/sshd.sh


Config

Now we need to create the config. I will use an example of a basic config to allow you access. You can add the relevant sections the you want. More info can be found http://www.openbsd.org/cgi-bin/man.cgi?query=sshd_config There already exists a config file for sshd, this has nothing enabled. We will make a backup copy of this before editing. Enter the following:

 cp /etc/sshd_config /etc/sshd_config.bak

Use vi to edit the config file.

 vi /etc/sshd_config

Make sure that the file has the following changed/uncommented:

 port 22
 Protocol 2,1
 PermitRootLogin yes
 StrictModes yes
 Subsystem       sftp    /usr/local/libexec/sftp-server

Exit Vi.

Then test that your startup script & config work by entering the following.

 /etc/init.d/sshd.sh start

Assuming that you have no errors all is fine. You can now login to your Linkstation with your ssh client.

Adding Telnet/SSHD to your start up script (rcS).

  • Backup before editing.

The file for editing will be '/etc/init.d/rcS' this has all the init scripts defined for startup. Make a backup of this by entering the following:

 cp /etc/init.d/rcS /etc/init.d/rcS.bak

Edit this with Vi

 vi /etc/init.d/rcS

Telnet

To enable telnet at startup, uncomment the line if it exists (Does exist in some firmwares).

 # /usr/sbin/telnetd

so it looks like

 /usr/sbin/telnetd

SSHD

  • If you have taken the option to enable sshd you can add the sshd.sh to this file also.

I prefer to keep the file as close to default as possible I will add it to the same section as stock. Add sshd.sh to the line containing (This is for LS-Live, Pro has less scripts to start)

 echo "** step3 **"
 for cmd in micon_setup.sh atalk.sh ftpd.sh httpd.sh lprng.sh smb.sh pcastd.sh epg.sh directcopy.sh clientUtil_servd.sh lsprcvd.sh daemonwatch.sh cron.sh ltbootd.sh logchkd.sh
 do
         exec_sh $cmd
 done

Like So:

 echo "** step3 **"
 for cmd in micon_setup.sh atalk.sh ftpd.sh httpd.sh lprng.sh smb.sh pcastd.sh epg.sh directcopy.sh clientUtil_servd.sh lsprcvd.sh daemonwatch.sh cron.sh ltbootd.sh logchkd.sh sshd.sh
 do
         exec_sh $cmd
 done

Exit vi

Optional Files & Fixes

Time discrepancies

Some might notice in their logs that there are some errors with backups, system time etc. The reason for this is the hardware clock is not updated by sytem time. The file time_set.sh is missing. http://bugtracker.linkstationwiki.net/view.php?id=113 This can be resolved by creating a symlink to set_time.sh

 ln -s /usr/local/bin/set_time.sh /usr/local/bin/time_set.sh

/dev/null

By default in the stock firmware /dev/null is only accessible to root. http://bugtracker.linkstationwiki.net/view.php?id=86 Change the permissions for /dev/null for all user access:

 chmod 0666 /dev/null

/etc/profile

When logging in as a non root user, The error "Permission denied" will be displayed. http://bugtracker.linkstationwiki.net/view.php?id=87 Change the permissions for /etc/profile for all user access:

 chmod 0644 /etc/profile

Addon Files.

To add some extra files namely wget, su & joe. Download: http://downloads.linkstationwiki.net/Uploads/OldUploads/LS_Pro_temporary/Binaries/addons.tar and transfer it to a share. cd to wherever you transferred it to & execute:

 tar -C / -xzvf addons.tar

Set the suid bit on su:

 chmod 4755 /bin/su

Note: If you have a LS Live or running firmware 1.10 or above you will need to download libproc, this is not included with the above. http://downloads.linkstationwiki.net/Users/kaiten/libproc-3.2.6_arm9.tgz

 tar -C / -xzvf libproc-3.2.6_arm9.tgz
 ldconfig -v

Daemonwatch.. Adding sshd.

For those that have taken the option to have sshd as their preferred way of connecting to their Linkstation. sshd can be added to the daemonwatch list, if it falls over for any reason it will be respawned.

Backup '/etc/daemonwatch.list'

 cp /etc/daemonwatch.list /etc/daemonwatch.list.bak

Add the sshd pid & startup script to it.

Pre 1.11-1a Firmware

 /var/run/apache/httpd.pid       /etc/init.d/httpd.sh restart
 /var/run/smbd.pid               /etc/init.d/smb.sh restart
 /var/run/clientUtil_server-eth0.pid     /etc/init.d/clientUtil_servd.sh restart
 /var/run/sshd.pid       /etc/init.d/sshd.sh restart

1.11-1a Firmware

 /var/run/apache/httpd.pid       /var/run/active_httpd   /etc/init.d/httpd.sh restart
 /var/run/smbd.pid               /var/run/active_smb     /etc/init.d/smb.sh restart
 /var/run/clientUtil_server-eth0.pid     /var/run/active_clientUtil_server      /etc/init.d/clientUtil_servd.sh restart
 /var/run/sshd.pid               /var/run/active_sshd    /etc/init.d/sshd.sh restart  

To test.. spawn telnet as a backup for access.

 /usr/sbin/telnetd

Then stop sshd:

 /etc/init.d/sshd.sh stop

You should then be disconnected from your ssh session. The daemonwatch process should have detected that sshd has stopped & restarted. You should now be able to log back in.. However if not.. You have your telnet access to fall back on & investigate. In '/var/log/linkstation.log' you should see the following entry.

 Jul 29 10:56:55 HS-320 daemonwatch: pid [/var/run/sshd.pid] does not exist

Lastlog Errors.

You may get some errors when logging in with ssh etc. 'var/log/lastlog' does not exist. Lastlog entries are never entered.

 Aug  4 13:27:00 LS-250GL sshd[20020]: lastlog_perform_login: Couldn't stat /var/log/lastlog: No such file or directory
 Aug  4 13:27:00 LS-250GL sshd[20020]: lastlog_openseek: /var/log/lastlog is not a file or directory!

To get rid of the lastlog errors.

 touch /var/log/lastlog
 chmod 0744 /var/log/lastlog

Now when you login you should get the last login message when logging in.

 Last login: Sat Aug  4 14:23:20 2007 from xyz.localdomain

Revision Info:

That's all I have at the moment. More can be added, some taken away. Just some of the things I've done to make my life a little bit easier.

  • 1.0 - 29 July 2007 : Initial Post
  • 1.1 - 01 Aug 2007 : Fixed typo
  • 1.2 - 04 Aug 2007 : Added Lastlog Errors
  • 1.3 - 06 Aug 2007 : Added libproc for Live & 110 firmwares
  • 1.4 - 31 Aug 2007 : Added Changes to deamonwatch for 1.11-1a firmwares (Thanks wasted life)
  • 1.5 - 31 Aug 2007 : Added su permission fix (Thanks wasted life)