Open Stock Firmware LS-VL

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Contents

Important

The tool acp_commander is used. You can find the readme here: http://downloads.buffalo.nas-central.org/TOOLS/ALL_LS_KB_ARM9/ACP_COMMANDER/README .

The tool itself is here: http://downloads.nas-central.org/TOOLS/ALL_LS_KB_ARM9/ACP_COMMANDER/acp_commander.jar .

Do not use the "-o" option of the acp_commander. It will not work. Do not use "-addons" either, because it will copy incompatible software onto the box.

Is this guide working for the LS-VL only?

No, this should work for all current LS with current firmware (>= 1.36 and maybe even the ones before).
According to the firmware readme of the LS series, the following models all should work the same way:

LS-AVL
LS-CHL-V2
LS-QVL
LS-SL
LS-VL
LS-WSXL
LS-WVL
LS-WXL
LS-XHL

Alternatively you can use the guide from the LS-XHL, which is more complicated.

What will be done?

We will use the "-c" feature of acp_commander. This will execute the command as user root (without a profile loaded).

We will also use the share "share" to copy some files for gaining access.

We will not use telnet but ssh for "opening".

What is necessary?

You need a private/public key pair for ssh conforming with the OpenSSH format.
You can create such a pair using Puttygen.exe on Windows. The private key will be used by Putty and the public key will be transfered to the LS and used by sshd. But be aware that the standard Puttygen export format for the public key is NOT conforming to the OpenSSH format! Use copy and paste from the result window of Puttygen instead.
On Linux you can create the keypair with ssh_keygen.

The Guide

Basic steps are:

  1. Generate a SSH public key (if you not already have one)
  2. Put the SSH public key into /root/.ssh/authorized_keys on your LS
  3. Enable root login in /etc/sshd_config
  4. Start sshd on the LS

For that you will

  1. Generate a SSH public key (if you not already have one)
  2. Create a text-file/script open-ls.txt
  3. Copy both your SSH public key and this script to your LS
  4. Run the script remote on your LS using acp_commander
  5. Finished :-)

Look below for a Linux/Unix script easing the next three steps.

  1. Put your public key in a file named authorized_keys and put the file into the share "share" (do not use a subdirectory to make this guide work).
  2. Put the lines below into a a file named open-ls.txt and put it in the same place.
#!/bin/bash
# open-ls.txt -- This script will be executed on the LS

# DIR is where we are
DIR=$( cd $(dirname $0) ; pwd)

# Create the directory for the ssh keys and copy the pubkey there
mkdir /root/.ssh
chmod 700 /root/.ssh
cp $DIR/authorized_keys /root/.ssh/
chmod 600 /root/.ssh/authorized_keys
# Required if 'authorized_keys' have een written on a Windows PC
dos2unix /root/.ssh/authorized_keys

### Enable root login for SSH
# Backup
mv /etc/sshd_config /etc/sshd_config.orig
# Remove all references to PermitRootLogin and create a new sshd_config
grep -v PermitRootLogin /etc/sshd_config.orig > /etc/sshd_config
# Add the PermitRootLogin Yes into the new sshd_config file
echo PermitRootLogin yes >> /etc/sshd_config
chmod 600 /etc/sshd_config
# Verify
tail /etc/sshd_config

# Last we restart the sshd.
/etc/init.d/sshd.sh restart
  1. Run the script remote on your LS using acp_commander
In the next command-lines please replace the $IPADDR by the IP-address of your LS. If your NAS is configured to use RAID1, you may need to change the path to the share from disk1 to array1.
  • Check whether both files are there:
java -jar acp_commander.jar -t $IPADDR -ip $IPADDR -pw password 'ls /mnt/disk1/share/'
  • Now let acp_commander execute the script on your LS
java -jar acp_commander.jar -t $IPADDR -ip $IPADDR -pw password 'sh -x /mnt/disk1/share/open-ls.txt'

As an alternative, here is a Unix/Linux script to ease copying the files and execute the copied script. There is no need to save it onto a file, simply copy and paste line by line into you shell, while adapting to your needs.

IPADDR=192.168.110.4
DISK=disk1
PASSWD=password
ACP="java -jar acp_commander.jar -t $IPADDR -ip $IPADDR -pw $PASSWD"

smbclient '\\'$IP'\share'  -c "put $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys authorized_keys"
smbclient '\\'$IP'\share'  -c "put open-ls.txt open-ls.txt"
smbclient '\\'$IP'\share'  -c "dir"

$ACP -c "ls /mnt/$DISK/share/"
$ACP -c "sh -x /mnt/$DISK/share/open-ls.txt"
ssh root@$IP


Note: If you receive the message "Server refuse our key", the possibility is high, that you made a mistake using Puttygen.exe (you used the export key feature instead of copy & paste the public key out of the display window).
To solve this, you can try to copy the key file again using the command (assuming you put the exported file "key.pub" onto the share into the directory authorized_keys):

java -jar acp_commander.jar -t 192.168.172.1 -ip 192.168.172.1 -pw password -c "ssh-keygen -i -f /mnt/disk1/share/authorized_keys/key.pub >> /root/.ssh/authorized_keys"

If your NAS is configured to use RAID1, you may need to change the path to the share from disk1 to array1 for the copy and ssh-keygen commands to work correctly

The result

You can now connect as root via "ssh root@192.168.172.1".
If you are using PuTTY on a Windows PC, remember to browse for the private key file under "Connection -> SSH -> Auth -> Private key file for authentication".
Now you can do whatever you want with your LS, because it is open!

If you want to convert your data partition filesystem from XFS to ext3, look into the guide of the LS-XHL but be aware that there is a small difference explained after the link: Open Stock Firmware LS-XHL
When you did everything mentioned in the guide (which you have to do!), it is still not working due to a coding error by Buffalo.
Yes, they got it wrong again (do they have quality management, in form of code reviews, in their programming department at all?).
They coded their own shell function wrong. The comment says 3 parameters with the third parameter optional and the funtion is testing for "equal 2"??
Inside the function, they indeed use the third parameter to determine which filesystem to mount, with xfs as default. Without the possibility to pass a third parameter, the function will always mount as xfs.
So I had to patch /etc/rc.d/sysinit.d/S25start_data_array.sh line 622 within the section "${SUPPORT_RAID} = off".
Because mount_DataDisks_sub is ignoring the third parameter (that would be the filesystem), I replaced the line with:

  mount -t ${USERLAND_FS} ${DEV1} /mnt/disk1