Talk:The LinkStation firmware flasher

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Testing freelink images on LS2, i found out a lot of details on the flashing process. I don't know if this applies to LS1, HG, Kuro, TS as well, so I decided to put my knowledge in this discussion area. Please correct me if I'm wrong, make additions and integrate this stuff in the main article if it's of general use for other platforms.

We have two ways of flashing: EM mode and normal mode. This is true only for normal mode on my LS2:

Flashing the image.dat to hda1 from Windows needs at least the follwing requirements:

1. idtinfo loaded to create /proc/linkstation

root@FL060727:~# lsmod
Module                  Size  Used by    Tainted: P
idtinfo                12428   0  (unused)

if idtinfo is not loaded, do (ignore warnings, this a license problem):

root@FL060727:~# insmod idtinfo
Using /lib/modules/2.4.20_mipsel_linkstation/idtinfo.o
Warning: loading /lib/modules/2.4.20_mipsel_linkstation/idtinfo.o will taint the kernel: no license
See http://www.tux.org/lkml/#export-tainted for information about tainted modules
Module idtinfo loaded, with warnings

2. apservd must be executeable. If he is not, do a changemod and start it:

root@FL060727:~# chmod +x /etc/init.d/apservd
root@FL060727:~# ls -la /etc/init.d/apservd
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root 1286 Jul 29 23:20 /etc/init.d/apservd
root@FL060727:~# /etc/init.d/apservd start
Start services: ls_servd on eth0

ls_servd is triggerd by starting apservd. ls_servd is opening a port on your LS2:

root@FL060727:~# netstat -a
Active Internet connections (servers and established)
...
udp        0      0 *:22936                 *:*
...

If you can't see this open port, the flasher won't be able to find your box. All 3 Windows applications which came with your Linkstatation (HD-HLAN FWUpdate.exe, IPSetup.exe and LsBackup.exe) are using this open UDP port to communicate with your Linkstation.

3. Some scripts must be in the right place on your box. As I did not sort out those scripts, which are really essential to the flashing process, I was copying all scripts to hda1:

root@FL060727:~# ls -la /www/script/*
-r-xr-xr-x  1 root root    4 Dec 21  2004 /www/script/Yes
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root   32 Dec 21  2004 /www/script/dobackup.sh
-r-xr-xr-x  1 root root  206 Dec 21  2004 /www/script/index.htm
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root  528 Dec 21  2004 /www/script/melsub_check_ip.sh
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root  759 Dec 21  2004 /www/script/melsub_disk_rebuild.sh
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root 1764 Dec 21  2004 /www/script/melsub_disk_repair.sh
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root 2056 Dec 21  2004 /www/script/melsub_filepath.sh
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root 2285 Dec 21  2004 /www/script/melsub_flash.sh
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root  876 Dec 21  2004 /www/script/melsub_init.sh
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root 7801 Dec 21  2004 /www/script/melsub_mkprintfilter.sh
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root  828 Dec 21  2004 /www/script/melsub_shutdown.sh
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root  572 Dec 21  2004 /www/script/melsub_shutdown2.sh
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root   99 Dec 21  2004 /www/script/melsub_tmpclean.sh
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root 2824 Dec 21  2004 /www/script/ref_lpr_filter_info.sh
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root  932 Dec 21  2004 /www/script/set_delshare_base.sh
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root  766 Dec 21  2004 /www/script/set_hdd_check_detail.sh
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root  763 Dec 21  2004 /www/script/set_hdd_check_normal.sh
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root 1880 Dec 21  2004 /www/script/set_hdd_format.sh
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root  705 Dec 21  2004 /www/script/set_hdd_format_usb.sh
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root 2542 Dec 21  2004 /www/script/set_ip.sh
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root   46 Dec 21  2004 /www/script/set_printer_queue.sh

At least melsub_flash.sh, melsub_shutdown2.sh and melsub_filepath.sh are needed by the flasher

If these requirements are met, I was able to use the flasher and put new images to my box. There's still much to be done, as at the moment the flashing procedure always ends up with an error message: "Attempt to renew firmware has failed". Nevertheless my box was always working. --Hanfbauer 15:39, 30 July 2006 (EDT) ----

Analysis of HD-HLAN FWUpdate.exe

Leaving my ssh connection open while attempting to flash the box, i could see some errormessages during the flashing process:

root@FL060727:~# sh: line 1: /www/script/melsub_flash.sh: No such file or directory
/www/script/melsub_shutdown2.sh: /www/script/melsub_shutdown2.sh: No such file or directory

This was the reason to put the required scripts in right place.

root@FL060729:/mnt# cat: /etc/linkstation_release: No such file or directory

I checked the content of /etc/linkstation_release inside openlink 0.52b and found:

PRODUCTNAME=HD-HLAN(IENOBU)
VERSION=2.05
SUBVERSION=HDD 1.2
PRODUCTID=0x00000006
BUILDDATE=2005/04/01 13:35:54

So i put this file inside /etc and flashed again, but ended up with "Attempt to renew firmware has failed". So I have to analyse melsub_flash.sh to find out more. ---- This is true only for EM Mode flashing on my LS2:

Wondering about settings restore

By flashing a firmware after connecting an empty disk to the Linkstation I expected to loose all settings which I had before on my old disk. But this not true. I experienced that some settings must be restored from the flash. Flashing openlink 0.52b to an empty disk and opening buffalos webinterface, I could check for some settings restored from flash:

Character code
Timezone
Shared folder information
LinkStation name
Linkstation description
IP adress
Default gateway settings
Workgroup setting

are restored from flash, while

actual time was reset to 2002 01 01

I relized that the restored settings where not those from my last openlink installation, but those which I did some weeks before, having the original 160 GB HD inside. Opening putty I could check for some files in root directory:

/etc/resolv.conf
/etc/samba/smb.conf
/etc/network/interfaces

did not change. I discovered that there's a second directory with config files: /etc/melco

bash-2.05a# ls -la
total 44
drw-rw-r--    2 root     root         4096 Jan  1 18:02 .
drwxr-xr-x   23 root     root         4096 Jan  1 18:02 ..
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root            0 Dec 20  2004 backup_error_status
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root           59 Jul 10  2006 ftpstatus
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root           24 Dec 20  2004 groupinfo
-rw--w----    1 root     root          105 Jul 15  2006 info
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root           35 Aug 26  2005 ntp
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root            0 Dec 20  2004 ntp_result
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root           57 Aug 25  2005 pcast_mp2000
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root            0 Dec 20  2004 pdcuserinfo
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root           11 Aug 29  2005 printer
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root         1544 Jan  1 18:02 shareinfo
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root          135 Jul 15  2006 shareinfo.bak
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root            0 Aug 26  2005 timer_backup.cron
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root            0 Dec 20  2004 timer_backup_folder
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root          133 Jul 10  2006 timer_status
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root            0 Dec 20  2004 userinfo

Inside these files I could find a backup of the usual config files. Don't know if this a template to fill up the usual Linux config files with restored data again, or if this is only a sort of backup.